Evaluating the governor’s plan to mandate higher wages for teachers

Summary: The governor’s proposed budget for the upcoming fiscal year includes a mandate to set the minimum wage for Pennsylvania public school teachers at $45,000 per year.  This proposal will not only increase the wage for those earning less than the mandate but have ripple effects on the pay scale, driving up salary and salary-based costs such as pensions.  This will, of course, increase a school district’s expenditures which they will pass along to local and state taxpayers.


When Gov. Wolf released his proposed budget for the next fiscal year, a lot of attention was placed on his desire for a higher minimum wage, a severance tax and other items on his wish list.  But one proposal has received little or no attention, viz., raising the minimum wage for Pennsylvania teachers and other education professionals from the current mandatory level by 140 percent.

In the summary of the proposed budget from the Office of the Budget—under “Building the Nation’s Strongest Workforce, Attracting and Retaining the Best Teachers for Our Kids” —it is noted that in the 1980s legislation was passed that “arbitrarily sets compensation for Pennsylvania teachers and other education professionals, including counselors and school nurses at a minimum $18,500 per year, or $8.90 per hour assuming a 40-hour workweek.”  The governor wishes to raise that minimum to $45,000 per year.

What would be the impact on local school districts if the minimum were raised to $45,000 for classroom teachers and other professional personnel?  This question can be answered in large part by looking at current average classroom teacher salaries paid by public school districts across Pennsylvania.  Data for the 2017-2018 school year are available on the Pennsylvania Department of Education web site.

Average classroom teacher salaries by district range from $37,444 to $99,707 per year.  For professional personnel, the range is $40,184 to $101,864. It is important to bear in mind that the statewide average teacher salary is $67,535.  In an earlier Policy Brief (Vol. 17, No. 44) it was noted that for the year 2016-2017 there were 316 of the state’s 499 districts with average pay below the state average with 56 districts having average pay that was 20 to 40 percent lower. One year later, that number did not change much, 312, with 49 districts 20 to 40 percent below the state average. This means there are likely to be a fairly high number of teachers making under $45,000 or not much above.

Obviously, some teachers earn more than the average and some less. Still, average pay provides the best (if not perfect) measure for showing how teacher compensation varies across districts.  Note, too, that Pennsylvania public school teachers are represented by public-sector unions and labor contracts are negotiated at the district level.

Moreover, districts have individual budgetary constraints dictated by the ability to garner tax dollars, whether they come from local property or earned income taxes or from state appropriations (a small percentage comes from the federal government or other sources including borrowing).  For the 2016-2017 school year (the most recent available), total revenue for all Pennsylvania school districts was $30.75 billion, of which $16.84 billion (54.9 percent) came from local sources with $11.3 billion (36.8 percent) coming from state sources and the rest from federal sources.

But as the Policy Brief mentioned earlier pointed out, the amount of state support depends in large part (but not solely) on how much a district can raise locally.  For example, in the Turkeyfoot Valley Area School District (Somerset County), which has the lowest average classroom teacher salary, just 31.6 percent of its total revenues come from local sources while 64.9 percent comes from the state. The most extreme example is the Duquesne School District, which receives just 9.9 percent of its revenues from local sources but 77.7 percent from the state. Meanwhile, in Council Rock School District (Bucks County), which had the highest average classroom teacher salary in the state, 76.7 percent of its revenue was derived locally and only 22.6 percent from the state.

So, if the governor gets his wish and the minimum salary for classroom teachers and other school professionals is raised to $45,000 per year, it will mean an immediate or near-term increase for all classroom teachers and professional personnel earning less than the new minimum. And it will mean increased pension payments as well and for other benefits tied contractually to salary.

And that increase could set off demands for higher pay by those already earning $45,000 or higher, based on the argument that education levels and experience should be appropriately recognized and rewarded. The aggregate impact of such demands cannot be predicted a priori but it will almost certainly be sizable for many districts and for the state. The mandate will affect many districts with average pay above $45,000 in addition to those with below $45,000 average pay.  This, of course, means higher costs for school districts that will have to be borne by local and state taxpayers. And this burden will fall hardest on those poorer districts whose current average is below $45,000.

In Turkeyfoot, with an average pay of $37,444, some of the teachers are earning less than the average, say $32,000. That means they will receive a $13,000 raise while a teacher earning $43,000 will only get a $2,000 raise—unless the district tries to make raises somewhat equitable.

In either case where does the money come from? In total, the mandate will immediately force Turkeyfoot teacher-related expenses up by 20 percent (not just salaries but also other salary-related costs) and likely much higher as salary adjustments are made for those teachers with salaries already over $45,000.  Note total instruction costs are over $3 million. Thus, in light of the limited tax capacity of the district, such a large expenditure increase will be close to impossible.  As a result, it will fall to the state to fund much, or most, of the salary mandate’s added cost.

According to the salary data, there are five districts in the state (of the 499 districts or 1 percent) whose average salaries are below $45,000 per year.  (Three of those districts are in Somerset County with the other two in Cambria County.)  What we do not know is how many teachers and professionals across the state have salaries below $45,000. As noted above, many districts other than those with average pay less than $45,000 could have a significant number of teachers and other professional staff under $45,000. They, too, will be significantly impacted.

And, of course, the surface was just scratched as higher salaries will spur much higher total personnel costs including higher pension payments, unemployment compensation costs, Social Security taxes and any other perks tied to the employee’s salary.

These higher costs will be borne by the taxpayers, whether local or state level or some combination.  This, at a time when the need to pour money into pensions due to the enormous unfunded pension liability is hamstringing the ability of districts and the state to take on any additional expenses.

This mandate is just the state’s attempt to narrow its embarrassing teacher pay gap while failing to address the underlying cause—the vast differences in local tax capacity per students across Pennsylvania districts.  It is an attempt to appease unions while ignoring fundamental issues. The teacher pay gap and broader school district funding issues will not and cannot be effectively resolved given the state’s school funding method of using two funding sources (local and state taxes).  And what will this mandate do to the state’s recently enacted funding formula?

Interestingly, teachers in rich districts do not seem concerned about their huge pay compared to the teachers in less-well-off districts. Obviously, what the proposed mandate will do is require more state funding to cover the higher expenses resulting from the mandate mainly in poorer districts but maybe some significant additional expenditures in other districts as well.

In light of the state’s pension funding problems, that will require massive payments each year for a long time to come.  As a result, the state will not be able to afford this teacher pay generosity without economically ill-advised tax hikes or spending cuts elsewhere. Perhaps the state will be willing to cut its funding to rich school districts with their $20,000 and higher per student expenditures to help cover the extra costs the mandate will create.  If no offsets can be found, this proposal will face a very difficult time in the Legislature.

Pennsylvania’s Embarrassing Teacher Pay Gap Across its School Districts

Summary: Teacher salary data from the Pennsylvania Department of Education’s Professional Staff Summary report show very large pay differences among the commonwealth’s 500 school districts.  This Policy Brief reviews the magnitude of those gaps and offers possible remedial steps.  Politically the situation should be unacceptable and at the same time faces enormous political obstacles to being corrected.


Much is constantly being written by public education advocates and teacher unions about inequities in school funding and the need for ever more funding. To be sure, there are wide disparities across commonwealth districts with 25 having revenues of $20,000 or more from state and local sources per student (2015-16 school year, latest available). Meanwhile, 75 districts had revenue of under $14,000 per student, with a few under $12,000.  These 75 districts get most of their funding from the state.

Earlier Policy Briefs (Vol. 17 No. 43 and Vol. 16, No. 46) have questioned the notion of how funding equity can be determined based solely on the amount spent per student and who would make the determination.  And past Policy Briefs have pointed out on many occasions that school spending per student is not a reliable predictor of academic performance.

But there is another potentially far more disturbing issue that lawmakers in Harrisburg should be uneasy about.  And that is the astounding teacher salary gap that exists among the state’s school districts.  The worst part is that under the school funding system, both the current system and the ones in place for decades, the wide pay gaps cannot be addressed in a meaningful way.

Teacher pay disparities arise primarily as a result of the wealth and income differences that determine the tax bases across the state’s 500 school districts but also differ to varying degrees due to cost-of-living differences and years of experience. And while the commonwealth does provide most of the funds spent by poorer districts and a relatively small share of revenue per student for the wealthy districts, the teacher pay gaps among the highest-paid and lowest-salary districts are enormous nonetheless.

A quick overview to begin:  The National Education Association compilation of teacher salaries by state for the 2015-2016 school year ranked Pennsylvania’s average salary of $65,151 as 10th highest in the nation.  According to Department of Education data for school year 2016-17, the statewide average annual pay for classroom teachers rose to $66,265. Of 500 districts, 184 had pay levels at or above the statewide average while 316 were below the state average pay. The 184 districts had average pay of $73,802—a pay level that would rank as 5th nationally.

The 316 districts with pay below the $66,265 state average had an average classroom teacher salary of $57,864, a gap of $15,938 or 27.5 percent under the 184 above average pay districts.  Then too, there were 56 districts with average pay that ranged from 20 percent ($53,000) to 40 percent ($35,720) below the all district average.

But that is just the beginning of the story of pay differences.  Consider the most extreme pay gap. For the school year 2016-2017, the highest average teacher salary was paid by the Lower Merion district—the district that also raises the most per-student revenue from local taxpayers. Lower Merion’s average teacher pay was $99,235, very close to $100,000 and no doubt many teachers earn well above the average.  Meanwhile, the lowest average teacher pay was $35,720 in the Turkeyfoot Valley Area district. That means Lower Merion teachers earned 2.7 times more than Turkeyfoot Valley teachers, and with commensurately larger benefit packages.

Pennsylvania’s top 10 teacher pay districts had an average salary of $92,382. No state had average pay as high as that level. These districts had total revenue of $22,178 per ADM (average daily membership) with $17,486 per ADM in local revenue.  At the same time, the lowest 10 pay districts had average salaries of $43,649. Only Mississippi and South Dakota had average pay lower than these districts. These 10 districts had total revenue of $15,597 per ADM of which only $4,524 was local revenue, about a fourth of the local revenue of the top 10 pay districts.

The teachers at the top 10 pay districts earn 2.11 times more than the teachers in the lowest 10 salary districts. Or said another way, the top 10 districts’ teachers earned $2.11 for each $1.00 paid to the teachers in the 10 districts with the lowest pay.

For the top 25 paying districts, average teacher pay was $88,608. As with the top 10 districts, no state had an average teacher salary at this level with New York being the highest at $79,152. These 25 districts had a total $20,874 in revenue per ADM with $16,106 raised from local taxpayers. In the lowest 25 salary districts teacher pay averaged $46,220. These districts had total revenue $15,454 per ADM, raising only $4,871 per ADM from local taxpayers. Teachers in the top 25 pay districts earn $1.90 for each $1.00 paid to teachers in the lowest 25 pay districts.

Several of the highest-paying districts as well as some districts paying well above average are not in the state’s wealthiest areas. Examples from western Pennsylvania include Plum Borough ($81,075), Indiana Area ($83,148), Armstrong County ($73,246), Belle Vernon ($74,324) and the United School District of Indiana County ($70,573). Except for Indiana, these districts raise well below the state average revenue per student from local sources unlike most of the districts with above average pay.

Clearly, the disparities in teacher pay across Pennsylvania school districts are astounding.  And yet the teacher unions are virtually silent regarding this embarrassment.  During contract bargaining, teacher unions—that are organized by district—will use salary and benefits in nearby districts with higher pay as comparisons to justify getting higher salaries or better benefit packages. But why do we not hear more from the statewide union leadership and the pro-teacher union legislators about the egregiously large teacher pay gap that exists between mostly wealthier schools and poorer area schools.

It is one thing for per-student revenue to be 35 percent higher in the top 25 pay districts compared to the lowest 25 pay districts.  But for the teacher pay to be almost twice as high borders on scandalous.  Where is the outcry from the Pennsylvania State Education Association and the Pennsylvania Federation of Teachers that purportedly represent teachers across the commonwealth?

Obviously, the legislators from wealthy districts where teachers are paid handsomely with great pension and other benefits have no interest in risking the ire of the unions in their district by raising the pay gap issue. But why do the legislators who represent the poor districts not call attention to the huge disparities? Are the lowest paid teachers 50 percent less able or competent than the highest paid? That would seem highly doubtful and the teacher unions will be the first to dispute such an assertion. Then why does this enormous pay gap situation exist and why is not a major union objective to correct?

What can be done?  For districts with very rich tax bases, give them the option of becoming independent, giving up all state financial support but remaining subject to standardized test requirements, such as charter schools. Or give them the option of remaining in the state system but being forced to begin reducing per student spending over time toward the state average.  The latter option could be carried out in a phased in program of freezing local revenue and getting less state revenue over a period of years until parity with the state average per student spending is reached.

Unless this scheme, or something similar, is adopted the wide disparities in teacher pay and per-student funding will persist and may even get worse. At some point teacher union bargaining will have to be done on a statewide basis to avoid the situation where district unions ratchet up costs by using other districts’ pay as bargaining chips

The huge teacher pay disparities in Pennsylvania’s school districts ought to make social justice and union advocate legislators from rich districts very uneasy.